It is fitting at this time for a Hosni Mubarak biography to begin with the end of Mubarak’s reign, since it is the departure of the military leader in the face of a run-away uprising, that has captured the world’s attention.
Once dubbed “Egypt’s modern Pharaoh,” Hosni Mubarak was forced to resign his post as Egyptians took to the streets to protest his rule on February 11, 2011. Authorities tried to rid Cairo’s Tahrir Square of protesters but it soon became clear that the attempt had met with unequivocal failure – a sudden revolution that rapidly returned the voice of the government back to the population, and renewed the hopes of the region.
Meanwhile, the temporary military regime has vowed to “guarantee the peaceful transition of power in the framework of a free, democratic system which allows an elected, civilian power to govern the country.”
Early Life of Hosni MubarakMuhammad Hosni Mubarak was born May, 4th, 1928, in Kafr Moselha, Egypt, in the Nile Delta. No one would have predicted that the tiny infant would become President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, 1981- 2011, but his eventual fate may have been foreshadowed by the fact that his birth took place just a few days before the Republic of China was officially recognized by the United States.
Mubarak's father was an officer in the Ministry of Justice, and he had several brothers and sisters. Mubarak's village of Kafr-El Meselha was known for the quality of its schools. Mubarak did well in school. He completed his primary schooling in the village of his birth and secondary studies in the nearby capital of Shibin El-Kom.
FamilyHosni Mubarak and his wife Suzanne have two sons: Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, the later of whom was being groomed to be Hosni's likely successor until the Mubarak's reign was ended by the recent rebellion. They also had a beloved grandson who died recently.
Military CareerHosni Mubarak was a pilot in the Air Force, and then became a teacher at Egypt’s Air Academy. He rose to the position of director of the Air Academy in 1967, and was tasked with the revamping of the nation’s Air Force, which had been demolished by the Israelites in 1967. Mubarak moved up to air force chief of staff, and became commander in chief of the nation’s Air Force in 1972.
Political CareerHosni Mubarak became president in 1981 after Anwar el-Sadat was assassinated – an ascent to the highest office in the land that was to last for an eye-watering three decades. Once dubbed “Egypt’s modern Pharaoh,” Hosni Mubarak was forced to resign his post as Egyptians took to the streets to protest his rule, and on February 11, 2011, then vice president, Omar Suleiman, announced the resignation and departure of Hosni Mubarak, following several days of anger, violence and confusion. The former ‘monarch’ or rather president transferred power to the military before leaving Cairo for his seaside retreat.
History has not yet declared a role for Hosni Mubarak. As the decades pass, the patina of time will lend perspective, and history will re-write the Hosni Mubarak biography. Any Hosni Mubarak biography written at this time must present a multi-dimensional frame; that of a broken-hearted grandfather, a politician whose era is obsolete, and a ruler whose days of glory are forever past.
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